Abbreviations

Name Description
3A IN Inhibitor of Rhinovirus protein 3A
a-gluco IN Alpha-glucosidase I inhibitor
AASLD

American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme.

ACIP Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
ACTG AIDS Clinical Trials Group
ADCC Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
ADME

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

AE

Adverse event

AGIN

Anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia

AK

Adenylate kinase

ALT Alanine aminotransferase enzyme (marker of liver injury)
ANRS Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA
API

Active pharmaceutical ingredient

Approx. Approximately
ARV Antiretroviral (drug)
AST Aspartate aminotransferase enzyme, marker of liver injury
AVEG AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group
BBB Blood-brain barrier
BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin
BID Bis in die (twice daily)
BLA Biologics License Application
BPV Bovine Papillomavirus (member of Papillomaviridae family)
BVDV Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
CANVAC Canadian Network for Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
CCHFV Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus (member of Bunyaviridae family)
CCIC50 Cell culture inhibitory concentration 50%: concentration of drug inducing 50% cell killing (measure of cytotoxicity)
CCID50 Cell culture infective dose 50%: viral dose infecting 50% of cells (better known as TCID50)
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA)
cdk IN Inhibitor of cellular cyclin-dependent kinase
cGMP Current Good Manufacturing Practices
CHMP

Committee for Human Medicinal Products (EU)

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CMV Cytomegalovirus (member of Herpesviridae family)
CNS Central nervous system
co-mktg Co-marketing
cp Cold-passaged (viral variant obtained by serial passage at low temperature)
CPE Cytopathic effects (in cell culture)
cpnd Compound
CRADA

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement

CSF Colony-stimulating factors
CTA

Clinical Trial Authorization, European equivalent of IND in the US

CTL Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte
Cyclophil IN Inhibitor of cellular cyclophilin
DAA

Direct-Acting Antiviral agent

dCK

Deoxycytidine kinase

dCK

Deoxycytidine kinase

ddRNAi DNA-directed interfering ribonucleic acid
dGK

Deoxyguanosine kinase

DHEA Dehydroepiandrosterone
DHHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
DHS IN Inhibitor of cellular deoxyhypusine synthase
DKA Diketo acid
dL

Deciliter

DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA Pol IN DNA polymerase inhibitor
DOHH IN Inhibitor of cellular deoxyhypusine hydroxylase
dsDNA Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid
DSMB Data Safety Monitoring Board
dsRNA Double-stranded ribonucleic acid
DTaP Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (vaccine)
DTH

Delayed-type hypersensitivity

DTT Dithiothreitol
DTwP Diphtheria, tetanus, whole cells pertussis (vaccine)
EASL

European Association for the Study of the Liver

EBV Epstein-Barr virus (member of Herpesviridae family)
EC50 Effective concentration 50% in virus-infected cell culture: concentration of drug which reduces viral replication by 50%
ECG Electrocardiogram
EEE Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (member of Togaviridae family)
EI Entry inhibitor
EIF Elongation initiation factor
eIPV Enhanced potency inactivated Poliovirus vaccine
eiRNA Expressed interfering ribonucleic acid
EMEA European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EU)
Encaps IN Encapsidation inhibitor
env Retroviral gene encoding envelope glycoproteins
enz. Enzyme
ERIG Equine anti-Rabies immunoglobulins
EU European Union
EVR

Early virologic response

Exp. Expiration
expr

Expression

FBS Fetal bovine serum
FDA Food and Drug Administration (USA)
FFU

Focus-forming units

fm Femtomolar (10-15 M)
g Gram
gag “Group-specific antigen”, retroviral gene encoding core/nucleocapsid structural proteins
GBV-B GB virus B, infecting New World monkeys and closely related to HCV (member of Flaviviridae family)
GI Gastro-intestinal
GMP Guanosine monophosphate
gp120 Glycoprotein 120, HIV-specific envelope glycoprotein with molecular weight 120 kD, involved in attachment to cell receptor for viral entry
GR Glucocorticoid receptor
GSH Glutathione
GTP Guanosine triphosphate
h Hour
HA Hemagglutinin
HAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy
HAI

Inhibition of hemagglutination (assay)

HAV Hepatitis A virus (member of Picornaviridae family)
HBIG Hepatitis B virus immunoglobulins
HBV Hepatitis B virus (member of Hepadnaviridae family)
HCV Hepatitis C virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
HDAC1 IN Inhibitor of cellular histone deacetylase I enzyme
HDCV Human diploid cell vaccine (obtained by propagating virus in cultures of human diploid cells)
HDV Hepatitis delta virus (not currently assigned to a viral family)
HEC

Hydroxyethyl cellulose

Hel IN Helicase inhibitor
Hel-Pri IN Helicase-primase complex inhibitor
HEP High egg passage
HEV Hepatitis E virus (not currently assigned to a viral family)
HHV-1 Human Herpes virus 1, or Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1, Herpesviridae)
HHV-2 Human Herpes virus 2, or Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2, Herpesviridae)
HHV-3 Human Herpes virus 3, or Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV, Herpesviridae)
HHV-4 Human Herpes virus 4, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, Herpesviridae)
HHV-5 Human Herpes virus 5, or human Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Herpesviridae)
HHV-8 Human Herpes virus 8, or Kaposi’s Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV, Herpesviridae)
Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b
HIV Human Immunodeficiency virus (member of Retroviridae family)
HLA Human leukocyte antigens
HPV Human Papillomavirus (member of Papillomaviridae family)
HR Heptad repeat
HRIG Human Rabies immunoglobulins
HRV Human Rhinovirus (member of Picornaviridae family)
HSV

Herpes simplex virus (member of Herpesviridae family);  HSV-1, Herpes simplex virus type 1;  HSV-2, Herpes simplex virus type 2

HVTN HIV Vaccine Trials Network
IAS-USA International AIDS Society - USA
IAVI International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
IC50 Inhibitory concentration 50: concentration of inhibitor needed to achieve 50% inhibition of an enzymatic reaction
ICAM-1 Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1
IDE Investigational Device Exemption (US)
IFN Interferon
Ig Immunoglobulin
IgA Immunoglobulin A
IgG Immunoglobulin G
IgM Immunoglobulin M
II Integrase inhibitor
IL Interleukin
IM Intramuscular
IMPDH Inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (needed to assure adequate intracellular pool of guanosine triphosphate)
IMPDH IN IMPDH inhibitor
IND Investigational New Drug (US)
Inhib. Inhibition
Ion IN Ion-channel forming protein (viroporin) inhibitor
IP Intellectual property
IPV Inactivated Poliovirus (or poliomyelitis) vaccine
IRES Internal ribosome entry site
IRES IN Internal ribosome entry site inhibitor
ITT

Intent-to-treat

IV Intravenous
JEV Japanese Encephalitis virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
kD Kilodalton (1000 daltons)
kg Kilogram
Ki Constant of inhibition: measure of enzyme inhibition based on reaction kinetics
KS Kaposi’s Sarcoma
KSHV Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (HHV-8, member of Herpesviridae family)
LCMV Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (member of Arenaviridae family)
LD50 Lethal dose 50 (dose associated with 50% mortality in animals)
LEP Low egg passage
LRTI Lower respiratory tract infection
M Molar
m Meter
MAA Marketing Authorization Application (EU)
mAb

Monoclonal antibody

MDR Multi-drug resistance
MEP Multi-Epitope Peptide
mg Milligram (10-3 g)
MHC Major histocompatibility complex
MHRA Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (UK)
MI Maturation inhibitor
min. Minutes
mktg Marketing
mL Milliliter
mM Millimolar (10-3 M)
mm Millimeter (10-3m)
MMR Measles, Mumps and Rubella combined vaccine
MOPV Monovalent oral Poliovirus vaccine
MPL Monophosphoryl lipid A, proprietary adjuvant used with certain vaccines
MPV Metapneumovirus (member of Paramyxoviridae family)
mRNA Messenger ribonucleic acid
MTP-PE Muramyl tripeptide (adjuvant)
MuLV Murine Leukemia virus (member of Retroviridae family)
MVA Modified Vaccinia Ankara (Poxvirus vector obtained by modifying Ankara strain of Vaccinia)
MW Molecular weight
NA Neuraminidase
NA IN Neuraminidase inhibitor
NBE

New biological entity

NCE

New chemical entity

NCI National Cancer Institute (US)
NcRTI Nucleoside-competing reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NDA New Drug Application (US)
NDS New Drug Submission (Canada)
NDV Newcastle Disease virus (member of Paramyxoviridae family)
NHS National Health Service (UK)
NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
NIBSC National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (UK)
NIDDK National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
NIH National Institutes of Health (US)
NIID National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Japan)
NIMH National Institute of Mental Health (US)
NK Natural killer (cells)
nM Nanomolar (10-9 M)
nm Nanometer (10-9 m)
NNRTI Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NRTI Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NS5A IN Inhibitor of HCV non-structural NS5A phosphoprotein involved in RNA replication complex and pathogenesis
NSI Non-syncytium inducing
OBT Optimized background therapy
OD Orphan Drug (designation or status, US)
OMP Orphan Medicinal Product (EU)
OPV Oral Poliovirus (or poliomyelitis) vaccine
ORF Open reading frame
OTC Over-the-counter (drug available without prescription)
PAHO Pan-American Health Organization
PAM Protease-associated mutations (mutations in viral protease gene associated with resistance to PIs)
PARP IN Inhibitor of cellular poly-ADP ribose polymerase
PATH Program for Appropriate Technology in Health
PBMC Peripheral blood monocyte cells
PCECV Primary chick embryo cell vaccine (obtained by propagation of virus in cultures of chicken fibroblasts)
PCPP Polyphosphazene (adjuvant for certain vaccines)
PD

Pharmacodynamics

PDEV Purified duck embryo vaccine (obtained by inoculation of virus into embryonated egg, with preparation of vaccine from egg material)
PED Pediatric exclusivity
PEG Polyethylene glycol
PEG-IFN Pegylated interferon
PEP Post-exposure prophylaxis
PFU Plaque-forming units
PI Protease inhibitor
PIC Pre-integration complex
PIC IN Inhibitor of pre-integration complex
PIV Parainfluenza virus (member of Paramyxoviridae family)
PK Pharmacokinetics
pM Picomolar (10-12 M)
PML Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
PNA Peptide-nucleic acid
pol Retroviral gene encoding reverse transcriptase/RNAseH, protease and integrase enzymes
PPRTI Pyrophosphate reverse transcriptase inhibitor
PR Protease enzyme
PRP-T Polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP, main component of Haemophilus influenzae outer capsule) conjugated to tetanus toxoid
pts Patients
PVRV Purified Vero cell Rabies vaccine (obtained by propagation of virus in cultures of Vero cells)
QD

Once daily

Regul IN Inhibitor of viral regulatory protein or gene
Release IN Inhibitor of virion release from infected cells
RIG Human Rabies immunoglobulins
RNA Ribonucleic acid
RNA Pol IN RNA polymerase inhibitor
RNAi Ribonucleic acid interference
RNAse Ribonuclease
RRP Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, caused by some members of Papillomaviridae family
RSV Respiratory Syncytial virus (member of Paramyxoviridae family)
RT Reverse transcriptase enzyme
RT-like IN Inhibitor of reverse transcriptase-like enzyme
RTI Reverse transcriptase inhibitor
RVFV Rift Valley Fever virus (member of Bunyaviridae family)
RVR

Rapid virologic response

SAAVI South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative
SAE

Serious adverse event

SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (caused by member of Coronaviridae family)
SAVI SARS Accelerated Vaccine Initiative
SBIR

Small Business Innovation and Research grant

sc or SC or SQ

Subcutaneous

SCID Severe combined immunodeficiency
SDF-1 Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also called CXCL12), natural ligand for CXCR4 cell co-receptor used by HIV for viral entry
SI Syncytium-inducing
siRNA Small interfering ribonucleic acid
SIV Simian Immunodeficiency virus
SLEV St-Louis Encephalitis virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
SMBV Suckling mouse brain vaccine (obtained by intracerebral inoculation of virus and preparation of vaccine directly from mouse brain tissue)
SOC

Standard-of-care

ssDNA Single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid
SSPE Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
ssRNA Single-stranded ribonucleic acid
STD Sexually transmitted diseases
STI Structured (or Strategic) Treatment Interruption
SV40 Simian virus 40 (member of Polyomaviridae family)
SVM Selective viral mutagenesis
SVR

Sustained virologic response

TAM Thymidine analogue mutations (mutations in HIV reverse transcriptase gene associated with drug resistance, selected for by thymidine analogues azidothymidine and stavudine)
TAR Tat-responsive element
TB Tuberculosis
TBEV Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
TCID50 Tissue culture infective dose 50%: viral dose infecting 50% of cells (sometimes called CCID50)
Th1 Cellular arm of immune system
Th2 Humoral arm of immune system
TID Ter un die (three times per day)
TK Thymidine kinase enzyme
TLR Toll-like receptor
TNF Tumor necrosis factor
TOPV Trivalent oral Poliovirus (or poliomyelitis) vaccine
tRNA Transfer ribonucleic acid
ts Temperature-sensitive
U Unit
UCK-1

Uridine-cytidine kinase 1

UMMS University of Massachusetts Medical School
Uncoat IN Inhibitor of viral uncoating in entry process
USAFEB US Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (during World War II)
USAMRIID US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases
USAMRMC US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command
VAPP Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis
VEE Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus (member of Togaviridae family)
VIG Vaccinia immunoglobulins
VLP Virus-like particles
VRC Vaccine Research Center
vs versus
VSV Vesicular Stomatitis virus (member of Rhabdoviridae family)
VZIG Varicella-Zoster immunoglobulins
VZV Varicella-Zoster virus (member of Herpesviridae family)
WEE Western Equine Encephalitis virus (member of Togaviridae family)
WHO World Health Organization
WNV West Nile virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
WRAIR Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
wt or WT Wild-type
WWII World War II
YFV Yellow Fever virus (member of Flaviviridae family)
YMPK

Uridine-cytidine monophosphate kinase (UMP-CMP kinase)

ZFN Zinc-finger protein nuclease
Zn-f IN Zinc-finger inhibitor
g Microgram (10-6 g)
M Micromolar (10-6 M)
m Micrometer or micron (10-6 m)